Evolution of Technology (TEC 154 2014S) : Outlines

Outline 18: Human Factors (3)


Held: Friday, 28 February 2014

Back to Outline 17 - Human Factors (2). On to Outline 19 - Where We've Been, Where We're Going.

Summary

We conclude our exploration of the ways in which the design of technology affects how we interact with technology.

Related Pages

Overview

Administrivia

The Big Questions on Norman

A challenge to the class: Identify the ten most important points in Norman and give an example (not from Norman) that illustrates each of those points.

(Yes, this is intentionally slightly more than the 5-7 things you can easily keep in short-term memory.)

Reference: Norman's Outline

(Transcribed at a too-early hour by SamR.)

Chapter One: The Psychopathology of Everyday Things * You Would Need an Engineering Degre to Figure This Out (1) * The Frustration of Everyday Life (2) * The Psychology of Everyday Things (8) + Affordances (9) + Twenty Thousdand Everyday THings (11) + Conceptual Models (12) * Principles of Design for Understanding and Usability (13) + Provide a Good Conceptual Model (13) + Make Things Visible (17) + The Principle of Mapping (23) + The Principle of Feedback (27) * Pity The Poor Designer (28) * The Paradox of Technology (29)

Chapter Two: The Psychology of Everyday Actions (34) * Falsely Blaming Yourself (34) * Misconceptions of Everyday Life (36) + Aristotle's Naive Physics (36) + People as Explanatory Creatures (38) * Blaming the Wrong Cause (39) + Learned Helplessness (42) + Taught Helplessness (42) * The Nature of Human Thought and Explanation (43) * How People Do Things: The Seven States of Action (45) * The Gulfs of Execution and Evaluation (49) + The Gulf of Execution (51) + The Gulf of Evaluation (51) * The Seven Stages of Action as Design Aids (52)

Chapter Three: Knowledge in the Head and in the World (54) * Precise Behavior from Imprecise Knowledge (56) + Information is in the World (56) + Great Precision is Not Required (58) + The Power of Constraints (60) * Memory is Knowledge in the Head (62) + The Conspiracy Against Memory (63) + The Structure of Memory (66) - Memory for Arbitrary Things (67) - Memory for Meaningful Relationships (68) - Memory Through Explanation (70) * Memory is Also Knowledge in the World (72) + Reminding (72) + Natural Mappings (75) * The Tradeoff between Knowledge in the World and in the Head (79)

Chapter Four: Knowing What to Do (81) * A Classification of Everyday Constraints (82) + Physical Constraints (84) + Semantic Constraints (85) + Cultural Constraints (85) + Logical Constraints (86) * Applying Affordances and Constraints to Everyday Objects (87) + The Problem with Doors (87) + The Problem with Switches (92) - Which Switch Controls Which Function? (93) - How Are The Switches Arranged? (95) * Visibility and Feedback (99) + Making Visible the Invisible (100) - Nothing Succeeds Like a Good Display (101) - What Can Be Done? (101) + Using Sound for Visibility (102)

Chapter Five: To Err is Human (105) * Slips (106) + Types of Slips (107) - Capture Errors (107) - Description Errors (107) - Data-Driven Errors (109) - Associative Activiation Errors (109) - Loss of Activation Errors (109) - Mode Errors (110) + Detecting Slips (110) + Design Lessons from the Study of Slips (112) * Mistakes as Errors of Thought (114) + Some Models of Human Thought (114) + The Connectionist Approach (116) * The Structure of Tasks (119) + Wide and Deep Structures (119) + Shallow Structures (121) + Narrow Structures (121) + The Nature of Everyday Tasks (124) * Conscious and Subconscious Behavior (125) + Explaining Away Errors (127) + Social Pressure and Mistakes (129) * Designing for Error (131) + How to Deal with Error - And How Not To (131) + Forcing Functions (132) * A Design Philosophy (140)

Chapter Six: The Design Challenge (141) * The Natural Evolution of Design (142) + Forces that Work Against Evolutionary Design (142) + The Typewriter: A Case History in the Evolution of Design (145) * Why Designers Go Astray (151) + Putting Aesthetics First (151) + Designers are Not Typical Users (155) + The Designer's Clients May Not Be Users (157) * The Complexity of the Design Process (158) + Designing for Special People (161) + Selective Attention: The Problem of Focus (164) * The Faucet: A Case History of Design Difficulties (166) * Two Deadly Temptations for Designers (172) + Creeping Featurism (172) + The Worshipping of False Images (174) * The Foibles of Computer Systems (177) + How to Do Things Wrong (178) + It's Not Too Late To Do Things Right (179) + Computer as Chameleon (183) - Explorable Systems: Inviting Experimentation (183) - Two Modes of Computer Usage (184) - The Invisible Computer of the Future (185)

Chapter Seven: User-Centered Design (187) * Seven Principles for Transforming Difficult Tasks into Simple Ones (188) + Use Knowledge in the World and Knowledge in the Head (189) - Three Conceptual Models (189) - The Role of Manuals (190) + Simplify the Structure of Tasks (191) - Keep the Task Much the Same, But Provide Mental Aids (192) - Use Technology to Make Visible What Would Otherwise Be Invisible, Thus Improving Feedback and the Ability to Keep Control (192) - Automate, But Keep the Task Much the Same (193) - Change the Nature of the Task (194) - Don't Take Away Control (197) + Make Things Visible: Bridge the Gulfs of Execution and Evaluation (197) + Get the Mappings Right (199) + Exploit the Power of Constraints: Both Natural and Artificial (199) + Design for Error (200) + When All Else Fails, Standardize (200) - Standardization and Technology (201) - The Timing of Standardization (202) * Deliberately Making Things Difficult (203) + Designing a Dugeons and Dragons Game (206) + Easy Looking is Not Necessarily Easy to Use (208) * Design and Society (209) + How Writing Method Affects Styles (210) - From Quill and Ink to Keyboard and Microphone (210) - Outline Processors and Hypertext (211) + The Home fo the Future: A Place of Comfort or a New Source of Frustration (213) * The Design of Everyday Things (216)

Copyright (c) 2014 Samuel A. Rebelsky.

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