Espresso: A Concentrated Introduction to Java

An Introduction to Java

Summary: We introduce the basics of the Java programming language and walk through the first simple program.

Prerequisites: Basic understanding of object-oriented concepts.


Expectations of Object-Oriented Languages

Now that you know the basics of object-oriented programming, there are particular characteristics you should look for in any object-oriented language, including ways to define classes and objects, some protection mechanisms, and support for inheritance and polymorphism. Different languages natually take different approaches to these issues, both in the syntax that describes how one writes programs and in the underlying semantics of how objects and classes relate.

There are also some things you may not have thought about, such as the way in which one invokes a program in the particular language. In some languages one simply adds new classes and objects to an existing world, often through a graphical user interface. Other languages require you to type commands in a textual user interface. Still others can automatically determine which objects to start (e.g., because an object is embedded in a Web page).

Classes, object creation, inheritance, polymorphism, and program instantiation are more subjects than we can cover in a short reading. Hence, in this reading we will focus on three basic issues in Java:

Setting Up Java Programs: Your Main Class

Java provides a variety of mechanisms for indicating which objects provide the main components of your program. The simplest, and the one we will use for most of this book, is what we typically call a Main Class. Such a class is a class that contains one method, called main. The main method contains a series of instructions to create objects and to tell those objects to do things.

That theory is fairly simple. The syntax, however, is daunting to many novice programmers. Here is a sketch of a typical Main class.

public class NameOfClass
  public static void main(String[] args)
    throws Exception
  } // main(String[])
} // class NameOfClass

It is the programmer's responsibility to choose an appropriate name for the class and the instructions for the task at hand. Tradition suggests that the name of a class begin with an upper-case letter and use mixed case.

What else is in this sketch? The outer braces enclose the contents of this class, in this case, just the main method. You will see braces enclosing other things in future readings. The inner braces enclose the instructions for the main method.

You'll notice two slashes and a note after the end-braces. Text that begins with two slashes is a comment for the programmer or reader. My experience suggests that you should always comment your end braces to indicate what you're ending. Such comments help you make sure that your code is structured appropriately and helps the reader more quickly parse your code. You may (and should) also insert comments to explain key parts of your code.

You can probably guess what purpose the words that preface NameOfClass serve. The public indicates that the class can be used by any program or user (or at least any program or user that has system permission to read the file containing the class). The class indicates that we're defining a class.

The slew of stuff surrounding main is perhaps more confusing. If you are willing to live with just write what you see above, you need not learn the details right now. Feel free to skip ahead to the next section. However, if you'd like a quick overview, read on.

You might be able to guess that the public means that the method named main is generally accessible (again, provided the person or program attempting to access it has system permission to access the associated file).

The static indicates that the method can run without having an associated object created. You are probably used to running methods (procedures) without having associated objects. However, in Java, one typically associates a method call with a particular object that is to execute the method call. Hence, we must indicate that main is an exception to the rule.

In Java, all methods potentially return values. Programmers therefore have a responsibility to indicate what kind of value the methods return. (The designers of Java have found that programs behave more reliably if the compiler can tell the types of values and check to see that the programmer is using them consistently.) We don't want to return any particular value from our program (we just want it to run), so we give it return type void.

The String[] args in parentheses provides the one parameter to the main method: All the strings typed on the command line along with the command to execute the Java program. This parameter is an artifact of Java's designers decision to emulate some key aspects of the C programming language. We will return to it after we learn more about arrays.

Finally, the throws Exception is our admission that our method can fail. Java expects programmers to indicate when and how their methods can fail. As you become a more careful and responsible programmer and can guarantee that your methods will not fail, you can possibly remove this line.

Naming Objects

What kinds of things belong in the body of main (and in any other methods you decide to write)? A few basic things. First, you often include declarations of names for objects. The declaration of a name provides the type of object the name will refer to and the text of the name. The general form is

Type  name;

For example, I might say that pen will name objects in class with pen;

Similarly, you might say that i is an integer (in Java-ese, an int) with

int i;

Note that the semicolon at the end of the declaration is necessary. You will receive strange errors if you fail to include that semicolon.

Once you have declared the name for a kind of value, you can make that name refer to a particular value using the assignment operator (an equals sign).

name = expression;

Creating New Objects

In many cases, particularly at the beginning of the main method, the expression at the right-hand side of the assignment creates a new object. The form of an expression that creates a new object is most typically

new NameOfClass(parameters)

What class names can you use? You can use any class that you've defined (none, yet), any class that someone has provided for you or that you've downloaded, or any class that comes as part of a standard Java installation.

What parameters do you give when you create a new object? It depends on the kind of object you're creating. You will need to check the documentation for the object to determine what parameters are appropriate.

Using Named Objects

You've created an object. You've named that object. What else can you do with the object? You can tell it to do something. (Some programmers say that this is calling a method others say it is sending a message to the object.) The typical form is


Useful Classes

For many of your programs, you will find the following classes useful:

Sequences of alphanumeric characters. You can represent strings explicilty by surrounding the characters with double-quote marks.
The simplest mechanism for output in Java. PrintWriters provide print and println methods. You can create PrintWriters with
new, true)
You can also create new PrintWriters with
Files for use in PrintWriters. You can create a new File with
new File(pathtofile)
For now, you will not use files directly. Instead, you will create them as parameters for PrintWriters and other classes.

Putting it All Together: Your First Program

We now know all the basic components of a Java progam, so we can write a typical first program which writes a greeting to the screen.

package username.intro;

public class First
  public static void main(String[] args)
    throws Exception
    // Describe the two names of objects used in the program. pen;
    java.lang.String greeting;
    // Create objects and associate the names with those objects.
    pen = new, true);
    greeting = "Hello";
    // Tell one object to do something.
  } // main(String[])
} // class First


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