# Mini-Project 2: Fun with Fractions

Assigned
Wednesday, 31 January 2024
Summary
In this assignment, you will build a simple calculator that works with fractions
Collaboration
Each student should submit their own responses to this project. You may consult other students in the class as you develop your solution. If you receive help from anyone, make sure to cite them in your responses.

You goal in this project is to build a calculator (or perhaps many calculators) that (a) uses fractions as its basic numeric type and (b) includes registers.

## Required classes

• BigFraction.java. An extended version of the Fraction class you worked on in lab. You should make sure to reduce your fractions to the simplest form. You should also add other constructors as appropriate. You will also likely want to implement some other operations, such as subtraction and division.
• BFCalculator.java. The primary workhorse. This class should have a field that stores the last value calculated and provide the following methods.
• BigFraction get() - gets the last computed value
• void add(BigFraction val) - adds val to the last computed value.
• void subtract(BigFraction val) - subtracts val from the last computed value.
• void multiply(BigFraction val) - multiplies the last computed value by val.
• void divide(BigFraction val) - divides the last computed value by val.
• void clear() - resets the last computed value to 0.
• Registers.java. A set of registers corresponding to the letters A through Z. This class should have an array that stores 26 different BigFraction values. It should provide the following methods.
• store(char register, BigFraction val) - stores the given value in the specified register.
• BigFraction get(char register) - retrieves the value from the given register.
• InteractiveCalculator.java. Here, you will provide a main method that will repeatedly read a line the user types, use a BFCalculator to compute the result, and print the result for the user.
• QuickCalculator.java. Here, you will provide a main method that will take the expressions from the command line and then print out the results.

What will the input strings look like? They can be expressions, store commands, or quit.

• Expressions are sequence of values (either integers, fractions, or register names) separated by spaces and operators. The implicit meaning of an expression is “evaluate this expression and print the result”.
• Store commands will take the form STORE reg, where reg is a letter of the alphabet. These commands should store the last computed value in the given register.
• We quit with QUIT. (If you know how, you can also stop at the end of input.)

For example, here’s a session with InteractiveCalculator.

$java InteractiveCalculator > 1/2 + 1/3 5/6 > STORE a > a + a 5/3 (or 1 2/3) > a / 2 + 1 17/12 (or 1 5/12) > 1 + a / 2 11/12 > QUIT  Here’s an example session with QuickCalculator. $ java QuickCalculator "1/5 + 1/7" "STORE a" "a + 2"
1/5 + 1/7 = 12/35
a + 2 = 82/35


There is no precedence; you should evaluate operations from left to right. There may be an arbitrary number of values and operations on each line.

This rubric may evolve slightly during grading.

### Redo or above

Submissions that fail to meet any of these requirements will get an I.

[ ] Includes the five specified .java files, correctly named.
[ ] Each class has an introductory Javadoc comment that indicates
the author and purpose.
[ ] Includes a README.md file.
[ ] The README.md file contains the appropriate information (authors,
purpose, acknowledgements if appropriate)
[ ] All files compile correctly.
[ ] QuickCalculator and InteractiveCalculator run.
[ ] All classes include the specified methods.


### Meets expectations or above

Submissions that fail to meet any of these requirements but meet all previous requirements will receive an R.

[ ] Appears to follow Google Java style guidelines for indentation and more.
[ ] Fractions always appear in simplest form.
[ ] Handles expressions with two fractions and one operation.
[ ] Handles expressions with one fraction, one register, and one operation.
[ ] All data are stored in class fields, so that we can have two
BFCalculator objects running simultaneously and they will not
interfere with each other.


### Exemplary / Exceeds expectations

Submissions that fail to meet any of these requirements but meet all previous requirements will receive an M.

[ ] All (or most) repeated code has been factored out into individual
methods, including common code between QuickCalculator and
InteractiveCalculator.
[ ] All or most variable names are appropriate.
[ ] Handles expressions without fractional parts, such as 2 + 123.
[ ] Handles expressions with no operations, such as a, 11/2, or 5.
[ ] Handles negative numbers. (It need not handle negative regisgters.)
[ ] Handles expressions with multiple operations, such as 3/2 * 1/5 + 11/7.
[ ] Whole numbers appear as such and not as something like 11/1.
[ ] Provides an appropriate error message if the expression has the
wrong form (e.g., two numbers/registers in a row or two operations
in a row).


### User input

Having an example of how to ask for user input would be helpful. Does it change based on the type of input you want to take in like scanf vs gets in C? Where does it put the information when you get it?

I tend to use java.util.Scanner objects. You can use procedures like nextInt if you think that’s appropriate. However, I tend to prefer to just use nextLine() to read the line and manually parse the line.

    PrintWriter pen = new PrinterWriter(System.out, true);
Scanner eyes = new Scanner(System.in);
pen.print("Enter a fraction: ");
pen.flush();
String stuff = eyes.nextLine();
BigFraction f = new BigFraction(stuff);
pen.print("Enter values separated by spaces: ");
pen.flush();
String moreStuff = eyes.nextLine();
String[] values = moreStuff.split(" ");
for (String val : values) {
...
} // for


### Input restrictions

Do we need to support both fractions and mixed numbers?

You need not support mixed numbers. However, you should support both fractions and whole numbers.

If we call QuickCalculator with no command line arguments, do we put out an error?

I’d just report no output.

### Registers

What is a register?

In general, a register is a place to store information.

Why are we using it?

Because most modern calculators have them.

Why are we using letters for registers rather than numbers?

In practice, people use letters.

I also wanted you to continue thinking about the relationship between letters and numbers (something you explore in the prior MP).

### UI

Should we incorporate precedence?

No.

I’m still a little confused on the difference between the interactive calculator and the quick calculator. Do they both take the functions we’ve made, but the only difference is that one takes from the command line and the other has the user type the message after the command line is run?

You seem to have summarized it well. One thing you should be considering in this course is how to present your utilities to the user. It’s much faster to write java QuickCalculator "3 + 4" than to start the interactive calculator.

How would we make a visual version of this same calculator?

There are a variety of Java toolkits for making GUIs. Swing and JavaFX seem to be the most popular.

### Miscellaneous

How should I store “the result from the last calcluation”?

In an object field.

What does it mean to have two BFCalculator objects running simultaneously?

We can create two calculators and use them separately. (We won’t do that with the UIs you are creating, but we might do so in testing.)

BFCalculator calc1 = new BFCalculator();
BFCalculator calc2 = new BFCalculator();
pen.println(calc2.get());       // Should print 0


Is there is a BigInteger GCD function?

Yup. You can find it in the documentation for BigInteger.

### Beyond the project

Can constructors be static?

Nope. Although constructors aren’t called exactly like normal functions, we do not declare them as static. They must also be prefixed by new when they are called.

Do I just use import to connect Java files together?

If the files are in the same directory, you need not connect them explicitly.

import mostly introduces shorthand.

Is there an extension we are permitted to use for styling?

There’s a reformat command. Open the command palette in VSCode and enter “Format Document”. (Make sure you’ve installed the style info from the intro lab.)

Do you recommend building each class separately and then ensuring they work together or is building them simultaneously better?

I tend to build separately and experiment/test as I go.

Acknowledgements: Parts of this assignment are inspired by assignments from past versions of CSC-207 (and perhaps even CSC-152).